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Question 1: Fertilization and Nerve Conduction () Describe fertilization and ner

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Question 1: Fertilization and Nerve Conduction ()
Describe fertilization and nerve conduction in terms of the properties of membranes and membrane polarization.
Include in your
a. the development of the “resting potential” in the egg and the neuron and the events occurring during fertilization and an
“action potential”
b. the events that lead to slow and fast blocks to polyspermy
c. a description of the differences between the “wave of depolarization” that passes over the egg and the “action potential” that
propagates along a neuron
Question 2: Excretion and Osmoregulation
Describe nitrogenous waste removal and salt and water balance (osmoregulation) of birds.
Include in your answer:
a. a comparison of avian and mammalian kidneys with special reference to the structures and functions of nephrons
b. the blood circulatory pattern of the avian kidney and the function of the renal portal valves
c. the structure and function of salt glands and the advantage for birds of a non-pressure based compared to a pressure-based
osmoregulatory mechanism
Question 3: Animal Life Histories
Compare and contrast the life histories (life cycles) of invertebrate animals from different phyla using specific animal examples
Include in your answer:
a. a description of fertilization, cleavage, and embryonic development of eggs with different amounts of yolk
b. the many advantages of life histories that include a larval stage for marine animals and for insects
c. a description of the life history of parasitic trematode worms and the features that increase reproductive success even though
the life histories are complex and must pass through multiple hosts
d. the advantages of asexual reproduction and the advantages of sexual reproduction
Question 4: Tides and Seasons
Compare and contrast seasons and tides in temperate and tropical areas with respect to the positions of Earth and Luna, Earth’s tilt
relative to its orbital plane, and insolation.
Include in your answer:
a. a description for the reasons for seasons
b. how tides are produced and the reasons that tides are more extreme in temperate latitudes compared to tropical latitudes
c. how tides affect the vertical distribution (zonation) of marine animals
d. descriptions of specific adaptations of animals for survival in splash, high tide, middle tide and low tide zones.

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