Appropriate citations should be included in APA format. Paraphrase the informat
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Appropriate citations should be included in APA format.
Paraphrase the information you refer to with in-text citations and a list of your sources from in-text
citations on the reference page. Limit the number of direct quotes from sources to a maximum of 10%
of your paper.
Therefore, if your paper is 6 pages direct quotes should comprise and add up to no more than 60% of one
Turnitin is activated for this assignment to detect plagiarism, so be sure you use your own wording
when paraphrasing material from the books and other sources.
What is the Difference Between Paraphrasing & Quoting?
Paraphrasing is taking someone else’s idea, and restating it in your own words. Remember,
paraphrasing does not make this your idea. Therefore, you must cite the original source of the idea.
When paraphrasing, write your paraphrase without looking at the original source — then go back
and check for accuracy and for any direct quotes.
A direct quote is when you take a segment of the source (whether it be from a book, journal article,
or otherwise), and you copy that segment into your paper word for word. A quote must be put in
quotation marks and cited properly.
Examples of the APA in-text citations and reference page citations for the books assigned for this
In-text paraphrase examples in APA format:
Example at the beginning of a sentence:
Alexander (2012) argued that mass incarceration is an adaptation of Jim Crow laws.
Example at the end of a sentence:
The author argued that mass incarceration is an adaptation of Jim Crow laws (Alexander, 2012).
Example of citing multiple authors at the end of a sentence:
Several authors have illuminated how racism is deeply imbedded in the U.S. criminal justice system
(Alexander, 2012; Gonzalez Van Cleve, 2016; Vitale, 2018).
Reference page citations for required books APA format:
Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New
York, NY: The New Press.
Gonzalez Van Cleve, N. (2016). Crook County: Racism and injustice in America’s largest Criminal
Court. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Vitale, A. S. (2018). The end of policing. Brooklyn, NY: Verso.
This is very general. You don’t have to follow this exactly and you can mix it up relevant to how
you want to make your points.
I. INTRODUCTION (Approximately 1 page) – just introduce main idea in this section.
2. Introduce the book
3. Brief overview of the positive and negative attributes of the book.
II. OVERVIEW OF THE BOOK: A more detailed review of the main points from the book
(4 -7 pages)
1. Describe the goals of the book and any research methods/existing data incorporated to
support the findings/conclusions (1-2 pages)
2. Positive attributes (1-2 pages)
3. Negative attributes (1-2 pages)
4. In this section be sure to address parallels to the other two other assigned books. Examples
of areas of focus could include focusing on ways the book could be improved or could
improve ideas/methods from the other books (e.g. history of the U.S. justice system,
promotion of helpful discussions, introduction of unique perspectives, contribution to ideas
to improve justice practices, use of empirical data). (1-2 pages)
III. CONCLUSION (1-2 pages)
1. Briefly restate the primary points from section 2.
2. Emphasize one of the main points for style reasons (Connect with your reader – get
3. Answer any unanswered questions from the body of the paper,
a. How should practitioners (i.e., law enforcement, court workers, correctional workers) and
the three branches of government (legislative, executive, and judicial) use this information
to improve criminal justice processing?
b. What are the next steps for researchers based on this work? Should the work be replicated?
Should it be studied more rigorously and/or use alternative research methods to give the
findings/conclusions more support?