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1/ Define prejudice, discrimination and racism. Discuss how prejudice, discrimin

1/ Define prejudice, discrimination and racism. Discuss how prejudice, discrimination and racism negatively impacts the health and health outcomes of minorities in our American society today.
Prejudice is a presumption based on a lack of information. If is an attitude based primarily on stereotypes and beliefs rather than facts and evidence Discrimination refers to unfair treatment based on membership in a certain group. Depending on the context, these notions may refer to different types of perceptions, attitudes, or behaviors.
Racism is typically regarded as an individual act taken against someone entirely on the basis of race. Often viewed as a specific activity or belief that a person may have.
Increases in health insurance coverage under the ACA have improved access to medical care and have been linked to better outcomes for African Americans, such as earlier diagnosis and treatment of certain cancers. However, disparities still exist across health conditions when comparing African Americans and whites, including maternal mortality, infant mortality, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and other health issues. Social factors, including economic disadvantage, inequities in education, and lack of access to health care, impact a person’s ability to lead a healthy and productive life. For people in American society that experience racism and inequality in their daily lives, and throughout the lifespan, the impact of social factors on health are the most grave.
Even with improved access to medical care under the ACA, the disparities in health outcomes between African Americans and whites are stark. African- American women are three times more likely to die of pregnancy-related causes than white women. The African- American infant mortality rate is twice the rate for white infants. African- Americans are more likely to die from cancer and heart disease than whites, and are at greater risk for the onset of diabetes. However, death rates for African Americans with cancer and heart disease did drop over a fifteen year period. Across many chronic illnesses, however, African Americans are still more likely to die compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Homicides are also a leading cause of death for African Americans. In fact, African American children are ten times more likely to die by gun violence than white children
Citation: Please cite this book for me
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK24680/
2/ “The current state of American politics and ways that political decisions shape health outcomes for gender and sexual minorities.”
The United States is a liberal democratic federal republic in which the president (head of state and government), Congress, and the judiciary all exercise responsibilities reserved for the national government, and the federal government shares power with the states. The president leads the executive branch, which is separate from the legislature. The Senate and the House of Representatives are the two houses of Congress that have legislative power. Judicial power is exercised by the judicial branch (or judiciary), which is made up of the Supreme Court and lower federal courts. The role of the judiciary is to interpret the US Constitution as well as federal statutes and regulations. Resolving conflicts between the executive and legislative branches is part of this. The Constitution describes the structure of the federal government. Since the American Civil War, two political parties have dominated American politics: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, notwithstanding the existence of other parties. Third parties have the least political clout in the United States, which is one of the world’s most developed democracies.
The American Physiological Association promotes policies that ensure that people of all sexual orientations and genders are treated equally, as well as policies that address inequities in health outcomes for lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender people. Determining social problems that may require policy solutions, framing public policies for the general public and policymakers, developing strategies to achieve policy adoption, effectively implementing public policies, and developing accountability and evaluation mechanisms are all part of the public policy process. Policies rarely change unless outside societal forces organize to bring about change. As a result, advocacy organizations that provide services and advocate for changes in public policy, which are frequently funded by government services, play an important role in the policymaking process
The implementation of local LGBT rights ordinances and regulations is examined using two main theoretical frameworks: the urbanism/diversity approach and alternative viewpoints based on social movement theory. The level of urbanization and social diversity; the social and political resources of the gay and lesbian population; the political opportunity structure in the community; and the balance between traditionalist and liberal religious groups all influence the adoption of gay rights ordinances/policies. In relation to urbanism, the extent of political and organizational mobilization among the gay and lesbian community, the political opportunity structure in the area, and the presence of morally- traditional religious groups all influence the likelihood of including sexual orientation as a protected category.
Citation: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2377288/
3/ What is the “opioid epidemic”? How does the American economy shape health outcomes, like drug addiction and overdose deaths?
The Opioid Epidemic refers to the rise in the number of deaths and hospitalizations caused by opioids, which include both prescription and illicit substances. In recent years, the fatality rate from these medicines has risen to almost 40,000 per year, or 115 per day, in the United States.
How did the opposition epidemic really start, what were the causes and how did it spread, which greatly affected the US economy? Pharmaceutical corporations reassured doctors in the late 1990s that prescribed opioid pain medications would not lead to addiction, and healthcare providers began prescribing them at higher rates. As a result, there was widespread diversion and misuse of these drugs before it was realized that they may be very addictive. 3,4 Overdose rates for opioids began to rise. Overdoses from prescription opioids, heroin, and illicitly made fentanyl, a strong synthetic opioid, claimed the lives of more than 47,000 Americans in 2017. In the same year, an estimated 1.7 million persons in the United States developed substance use disorders as a result of prescription opioid pain medications, with 652,000 developing a heroin addiction.
In the United States, approximately 50,000 people died from opioid-related overdoses in 2019. 1 Opioid abuse and addiction, which includes prescription pain medications, heroin, and synthetic opioids like fentanyl, is a severe national epidemic that has a negative impact on public health as well as social and economic well-being. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the entire “economic impact” of prescription opioid usage in the US is $78.5 billion per year, which includes healthcare costs, lost productivity, addiction treatment, and criminal justice involvement.
Increases in opioid usage and accompanying overdoses, as well as the increased frequency of neonatal abstinence syndrome due to opioid use and misuse during pregnancy, have turned this issue into a public health catastrophe with fatal repercussions. Injection drug use has increased, which has contributed to the development of infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C. Science, as demonstrated throughout medical history, can play a vital role in resolving such a public health catastrophe.
The US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is focusing its efforts on five primary objectives in response to the opioid crisis: increasing the availability of treatment and recovery services, encouraging the use of overdose reversal medications, enhanced public health surveillance to improve our understanding of the epidemic, providing funding for cutting-edge pain and addiction research, improving pain management best practices
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is part of HHS, is the nation’s premier medical research agency, working to find new and better ways to prevent opioid misuse, treat opioid use disorders, and manage pain in order to combat the opioid crisis.
Citation:
https://www.hhs.gov/opioids/about-the-epidemic/index.html

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