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N A case-control method is an observational study that is used to view disease-c

N A case-control method is an observational study that is used to view disease-causing factors and their associated outcomes (Tenny et al, 2021). This study initially examines a group of cases, those of which include subjects who experience favorable outcomes. Thereafter, the researcher attempts to build a second group of subjects called “the controls”, who do not experience favorable outcomes. The researcher then observes the previous factors of disease to compare the frequency of exposures in both the cases and controls (Tenny et al, 2021).
On the other hand, randomized control trials (RCT) are possible studies that assess the effectiveness of a new intervention or treatment (Hariton & Locascio, 2018). Randomized studies essentially minimizes the occurrence of bias and provides a legitimate tool to measure the cause-effect relationships between an intervention and its outcome (Hariton & Locascio, 2018). This study is the only one where a balance in participant characteristics is possible.
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the study method you chose (case-control or cohort study)?
The advantage of a case control study is that it is designed to observe numerous risk factors associated with disease at once. The researcher is able to assess both the cases and controls for different forms of exposures to narrow down the one that most likely mirrors the studied disease (Tenny et al, 2021). The disadvantage of a case control study is the high chance of bias occurrence. The study typically establishes correlations between exposures and outcomes of disease instead of establishing the causation of disease (Tenny et al, 2021).
3. What are the characteristics of a correlational study?
Based off of what I understand in Lau (2017) article, a correlational study mainly is based on observation of characteristics of the participants in the research. The population typically includes subjects that have similar characteristics. This study also focuses on the possibility of exposure, disease prevalence, and risk factors in a given population (Lau, 2017). The case control study is one of the three types of correlational study, along with cohort studies and cross-sectional studies (Lau, 2017).
4. Where does the method you chose (case-control or cohort study) fall on the research pyramid? What does where it is on the research pyramid mean?
The case control study would fall on the Qualitative and Quantitative Case Studies section on the research pyramid. This is likely because this part of the pyramid includes studies that have a population of those with similar characteristics, and the case control study is a study that includes a population of similar characteristics. In research, studies are placed in levels of evidence based on the methods used (Kapoor, 2016). Therefore, the Research Pyramid shows how evidence moves up in both credibility and generalizability (Kapoor, 2016).
Hariton, E., & Locascio, J. J. (2018). Randomised controlled trials – the gold standard for effectiveness research: Study design: randomised controlled trials. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 125(13), 1716. M. C. (2016).apoor M. C. (2016).
Kapoor M. C. (2016). Types of studies and research design. Indian journal of anaesthesia, 60(9), 626–630.
Lau F. Chapter 12 Methods for Correlational Studies. In: Lau F, Kuziemsky C, editors. Handbook of eHealth Evaluation: An Evidence-based Approach [Internet]. Victoria (BC): University of Victoria; 2017 Feb 27. Available from:

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